The GREET® Model: Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy used in Technologies

Overview The GREET model is a publicly available life-cycle analysis tool for consistently examining life-cycle energy and environmental effects of a wide range of technologies in transportation, power, and material products. It takes a holistic approach to model energy and environmental effects over the entire supply chain of a technology with process-level granularity. GREET currently has two models: The Fuel-Cycle Model focusing on transportation fuels, chemicals and vehicle operation, and the Vehicle-Cycle Model focusing on vehicle materials, manufacturing, and recycling. GREET is available in two platforms: the Excel version and the .net GREET model version. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), GREET has been continuously updated and expanded since 1995. Currently, GREET includes more than 100 production pathways (for fuels and products) from various energy feedstock sources including conventional fossil resources such as petroleum, natural gas, coal, as well as renewable fuel pathways from corn, sugarcane, soybeans, cellulosic biomass, waste feedstocks, etc. The GREET model is used by more than 45,000 users around the world that includes government agencies, other national labs, universities, and industry. GREET is an integral part of the transportation and bioenergy technology evaluation. High-quality, consistent, and peer-reviewed analyses and publications using GREET play a valuable role in identifying opportunities to improve sustainability of technologies, promoting clean and efficient vehicle and fuel technologies, and informing policies.

With GREET, one can estimate 1) energy consumption including total energy (energy in non-renewable and renewable sources) and fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal), 2) water consumption, 3) greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, and 4) criteria air pollutant emissions including volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter with size. Also it can address the effect of allocation methods (mass, energy, market-based) or system expansion on the assignment of impacts and benefits to multiple co-products, from conversion/upcycling processes or from systems providing multiple functions, e.g. products and waste management.

National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)
Additional Information GREET has been in public domain and free of charge since 1995. A new version of the GREET model is released almost every year with new information and new pathways. The latest version of GREET model suite is available at
All publication related to the GREET model development and applications can be found at:

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